Universal Technographic Organization (UTRO) joined together with Tamil Nadu Heritage Enthusiastic Society (TNHES) to discover the Archeological Heritage Site of Hampi in Ballary district of Karnataka State.
We spent three fruitful days sightseeing the ruins of this ancient city, exploring nearly 20-old monuments under a cooling weather and unexpected drizzles and showers from June 15th to 18th 2017. From Chennai we started our journey in Hubbli Express which departs at 1:00 hour P.M and reached Hosepete mid night 1.45 A.M. We 22 persons were in House stayed lodge near around half a kilometer away from the Virupaakshar Temple in Hampi. We also passed a forgotten marketplace that seemed weirdly alive even though not a living soul was inhabiting it. One could not imagine what this place would have seemed like at the peak of KrishnaDhevaRaayar’s rule, full of bustling vendors and customers. Battery cars were available from the rear of Virupaakshar temple to the Vitthala temple that would have taken us to this place in a mere 10 minutes. The quality of food was rather below average but more than enough for us to quench our thirst and hunger. We took two Vans for our ride. All arrangements are made by Mr.Gireesh GopiNath, a fully enthusiast person member in Tamil Heritage Enthusiastic Society, and made our trip very pleasantly.
At the bank of Thungabhadhra River
Hampi’s Archaeological Discoveries
The Hindu style of architecture found at Hampi reflects the splendor of the Vijaynagar Empire.
Colin Mackenzie who discovered the ruins of Hampi in 1800. The Archeological survey of India still does many excavations to discover the many beautiful temples and also other artifacts. Listed under the UNESCO World Heritage Site as the Group of monuments at Hampi, this city was also at one point one of the richest cities in the world when it was in its peak.
Thungabhadhra River Pampa
Hampi is also known as Pampa Kshetra, Kishkindhaa kshetram and even Bhaskara kshetram. These names were derived from the famous Thungabhadhra River Pampa. Hampi word in is another version of Hampe, a Kannada name. Today, Hampi is also known as VijayaNagara who used to rule the city. The monuments speak volumes about the history of Hampi that used to be a prosperous and rich kingdom in the 14th century which was eventually ruined owing to the attacks made by the Moghuls.
The history of Hampi dates back to the 2nd and also the 3rd century that is the Neolithihc and Chalcolithic era. This fact has been established from the ceramic potteries that have been found here from those centuries.
The name Hampi was derived from the word ‘Pampa,’ which is the old name of Thungabhadhra river, on whose Southern banks the city is built. The ruins and monuments are spread over an area of 26 square kilometres.
The VijayaNagara Empire is said to have been established and founded by Bukkar and Hariharar who were also known as Sangama brothers. The brothers initially lived in Warangal where they were working as treasurer and minister. In 1323, the brothers fled Waarangal when the city was attacked by the Muslims and went to Kampili. They fled from there too again owing to the attacks by Muslims and crossed River Thungabhadhra to form a new city which is now known as VijayaNagara.
This city was ruled by four different dynasties from 1336 to 1565. Sangama dynasty, Saluva dynasty, Thuluva dynasty and Araveedu dynasty were the four dynasties in ruling during that period.
The Sangama Dynasty was founded by Bukka Raayar 1 and Hariharar 1. The ruling passed on from them to Hariharar II and DhevaRaayar II and several others.
The Saluva dynasty was ruled only by two rulers in the name of Saluva Narasimha Dheva and Immadi Narasimha.
The Thuluva Dynasty was the third in row to rule the VijayaNagara Empire. Immadi Marasimha who initially ruled the dynasty was killed by Vira Narasimha who then took over the throne and made the Thuluva dynasty in 1505.
The Araveedu Dynasty is the last dynasty of the VijayaNagara Empire and Thirumala was the founder. This dynasty was defeated and taken over Bijapuri muslims.
The Kings and princes of each of these dynasties made sure that while in their ruling, they do whatever it takes to brings richness and wealth to the city and ended up building over 500 monuments. And because Hampi was the capital, it flourished in trade.
Before the Vijayanagar Kings rose in this area, the city was ruled by Kampili and his chiefs. Kampili is now a quaint town that is situated 19 km on the east of Hampi.
Hampi is located in the central part of the state of Karnataka, in the southern part of India. It is 353 km from Bangalore, and 13 km from Hospet. It is located on top of a rugged terrain and is 467 m above sea level. It is protected by the tempestuous Tungabhadra river on the north and by rocky granite ridges on the three sides. Covering an area of about 26 kms, the ruins are situated in the midst of a rugged landscape.
Hampi is like an Open -air museum of famous temples and monuments of Hampi are Virupaakshar Temple, 6.7 m tall monolith of the fearsome deity Ugra Narasimha or Lakshmi Narasimha, is located in the south of the Hemakuta group of temples that includes the Virupaakshar Temple, Vijaya Vitthala Temple, a finely-sculpted chariot at the heart of the complex, The King’s Balance, AchyutaRaayar Temple, Krishnar Temple, Archaeological Museum, Hazara Raamaa Temple complex, Malyavanta Raghunathaswamy temple, Lotus Mahal, MahaaNavami Dibba, Courtyard, and an element of the VijayaNagar style is the carving and consecration of large monolithic statues, such as the Sasivekalu Ganesha and Kadalekalu Ganesha, Ugra-Narasimha seated on the seven-hooded snake Aadhisesha, the monolithic Badava Linga, Queen’s bath, royal elephant stables, the King’s balance and the gigantic Ganesh — all hewn gloriously in stone at Hampi
The Bas-relief on the outer walls depict processions of elephants, horses, soldiers, dancers and musicians. There are also carvings of women in the royal harem, who were well versed in music, literature and other fine arts. Women occupied a respected position in Vijayanagar society. Besides accomplished musicians and dancers, women excelled as astrologers, soothsayers, judges, writers and eminent litterateurs, and many were actively involved in matters of administration and trade.
Ganesh Hampi was a place of trade and a mustard trader made a great deal of money in the Hamp Bazaar. With the permission of the king, he built a Ganesh temple with his profits. Hence, the name Mustard Ganesh.
In 1509-29 during the reign of KrishnaDhevaRaayar, the empire reached the pinnacle of its influence economically, militarily and culturally, the legacy of which abides till date. In 1565 the end came swiftly. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new water management systems for irrigation. Fine arts and literature reached new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Sanskrit and Tamil. Famous travellers such as Nicolo Conti from Italy and Abdhur Razzak, an ambassador from Persia, described the magnificence of the city and how its women enjoyed ample freedom. Unable to withstand the combined assault of the neighboring Muslim kingdoms, Hampi fell at the battle of Thalikotta.
All especially Archeologists must be visited this archaeologically excavated site to know the ancient specially VijayaNagar Dynasties’ magnificent reigning range.